HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language, and it is the most widely used language to write Web Pages. As its name suggests, HTML is a markup language.
- Hypertext refers to the way in which Web pages (HTML documents) are linked together. When you click a link in a Web page, you are using hypertext.
- Markup Language describes how HTML works. With a markup language, you simply "mark up" a text document with tags that tell a Web browser how to structure it to display.
Creating HTML Document:
Creating an HTML document is easy. To begin coding HTML you need only two things: a simple-text editor and a web browser. Notepad is the most basic of simple-text editors and you will probably code a fair amount of HTML with it.
Here are the simple steps to create a basic HTML document:
- Open Notepad or another text editor.
- At the top of the page type <html>.
- On the next line, indent five spaces and now add the opening header tag: <head>.
- On the next line, indent ten spaces and type <title> </title>.
- Go to the next line, indent five spaces from the margin and insert the closing header tag: </head>.
- Five spaces in from the margin on the next line, type<body>.
- Now drop down another line and type the closing tag right below its mate: </body>.
- Finally, go to the next line and type </html>.
- In the File menu, choose Save As.
- In the Save as Type option box, choose All Files.
- Name the file My html page.html.
- Click Save.
HTML Document Structure:
An HTML document starts and ends with <html> and >/html> tags. These tags tell the browser that the entire document is composed in HTML. Inside these two tags, the document is split into two sections:
- The <head>...</head> elements, which contain information about the document such as title of the document, author of the document etc. Information inside this tag does not display outside.
- The <body>...</body> elements, which contain the real content of the document that you see on your screen.
HTML Tags and Elements:
HTML language is a markup language and we use many tags to markup text. In the above example you have seen <html>, <body> etc. are called HTML tags or HTML elements.
Every tag consists of a tag name, sometimes followed by an optional list of tag attributes , all placed between opening and closing brackets (< and >). The simplest tag is nothing more than a name appropriately enclosed in brackets, such as <head> and <i>. More complicated tags contain one or more attributes , which specify or modify the behavior of the tag.
According to the HTML standard, tag and attribute names are not case-sensitive. There's no difference in effect between <head>, <Head>, <HEAD>, or even <HeaD>; they are all equivalent. But with XHTML, case is important: all current standard tag and attribute names are in lowercase.